K-12 Actions, Consequences, and Interventions
Classroom-Managed Actions, Consequences, and Interventions
Re-Teach (ex: individual, whole or small-group)
Change Schedule (Classroom-based)
Praise the Appropriate Behavior of/in Others
1. Planned Ignoring - To purposefully ignore (refrain from giving attention, but monitor for safety) student behavior errors when their motivation is attention seeking and task avoidance, and to continue instruction without stopping.
2. Physical Proximity - Using teacher nearness to communicate teacher awareness, caring, and concern.
3. Signal or Non-Verbal Cue - Teacher gestures to prompt the desired behavior, response, or adherence to a classroom procedure and routine.
4. Praise the Appropriate Behavior of/in Others - Use behavior-specific praise with a different student or group to remind all students of the expected rule/expectation. Example: pivoting attention to group of students/individual student who is demonstrating the appropriate behavior i.e., in seat, following directions, work completion.
5. Praise Approximations - Reinforcing one behavior and not another. For example, praise the positive behavior while ignoring the student’s inappropriate behavior.
6. Re-Teach (ex: individual, whole or small-group) – State and demonstrate the behaviors captured in the behavior matrix. Have the student demonstrate. Provide immediate feedback.
7. Provide Choices - Give appropriate alternative choices to lead to the same target outcome. Examples: accomplish the task in another location, change the order of task completion, use alternate supplies to complete the task, or offer a different type of activity that accomplishes the same instructional objective.
8. Restorative Circle - Process or content circles used to prevent or discuss situations impacting learning and/or relationships.
9. Change Seating - Having a student change seats with another student, with an empty desk in the room, or another spot in the room to limit distractions, provide a break from another student, or a change or routine.
10. Change Schedule (Classroom-based) - Alteration to classroom schedule or timing of instruction to meet learner needs.
11. Peer Mediation - A process where identified and trained students act as neutral mediators to assist peer students in resolving social conflicts
Both Classroom and Office-Managed Actions, Consequences, and Interventions
Redirect/ Restate Desired Behavior (Expectation)
Behavior Improvement Plan (BIP)
Specific Error Correction
Think-it-Through Sheet/ Written Reflection
Referral to MTSS Team or Advanced Tier Team
Detention (AM or PM)
Referral to Student Assistance Program (SAP)
Restorative Conference/Questions with Student
Referral to Students IEP/504 Team
Individualized Reinforcement System
Loss of Privilege
Confiscation of Item
12. Redirect/ Restate Desired Behavior (Expectation) - Restate the desired behavior as articulated on the school-wide or classroom behavior matrix.
13. Specific Error Correction - an informative statement provided by a teacher, administrator or other adult following the occurrence of undesired behavior. It is contingent (occurs immediately after the undesired behavior); specific (tells the learner exactly what they are doing incorrectly and what they should do differently in the future); and brief (after redirecting back to appropriate behavior, move on)
14. Verbal De-Escalation - Verbal strategies to build rapid rapport and a sense of connectedness with an agitated person in order to reduce the likelihood of continued escalation.
- Be empathic and nonjudgmental
- Respect personal space
- Use non-threatening nonverbal
- Avoid overreacting
- Focus on feelings
- Ignoring challenging questions
- Set limits
- Choose wisely what you insist upon
- Allow silence for reflection
- Allow time for decisions
15. Restorative Conference/Questions with Student - A meeting between the student and classroom teacher, building administrator, or other designee to discuss and find solutions regarding the student’s behavior errors by asking the five restorative questions.
- What happened?
- What were you thinking of at the time?
- What have you thought about since?
- Who has been affected by what you have done? In what way?
- What do you think you need to do to make things right?
16. Individualized Reinforcement System - System in which a student is acknowledged and earns rewards for appropriate behaviors; less formal than a Behavior Improvement Plan (BIP). Examples include: incentivizing showing up for detention.
17. Structured Break - Time away from the assigned task, with a given purpose, meant to reduce tension or provide fresh perspective/energy to complete the process.
18. Parent/Guardian Contact - School district staff contacts the student’s parent/guardian via phone, email, text, or other communication systems to inform the parent/guardian of the behavior error and the associated intervention/consequence(s). Communication with the parent/guardian implies that the initiator receives a reply to the communication or some assurance that the receiving party knows the information. The communicator documents the nature/details of the conversation in PowerSchool.
19. Parent/Guardian Conference - A meeting between the student’s parent(s)/guardian(s) and teacher and/or administrator to discuss and find solutions regarding the student’s behavior errors. The meeting may take place in-person or via remote connection. The conference is documented in PowerSchool. Considerations should be given to include additional personnel from student services.
20. Think-it-Through Sheet/Written Reflection - Students use a guided form to help them reflect on why they were engaging in a behavior error and how their behavior affected others.
21. Detention (AM or PM) - Teacher/administrator assignment of a learner to an alternate learning environment with the provision of appropriate materials to continue learning in some fashion either independently or with guidance from an adult. Prosocial skill learning may be provided to enhance the outcomes. Detention could occur before or after school hours. School detentions at the secondary level will be held from 3 p.m. until 4 p.m. on Tuesdays and Thursdays only.
22. Detention (Lunch) - Teacher/administrator assignment of a learner to an alternate learning environment during regularly scheduled lunchtime with the provision of appropriate materials to continue learning in some fashion either independently or with guidance from an adult. Prosocial skill learning may be provided to enhance the outcomes.
23. Behavior Contract - An agreement between parties (student and school personnel) on the expected student behavior and school-provided learning environment for a specific learner. A behavior contract may serve as a supportive but less formally articulated agreement on behavior and learning conditions than a Behavior Improvement Plan (BIP).
24. Loss of Privilege - Withholding or removing access to classroom-based (teacher) or school-based (admin) activity. Classroom-based examples include but are not limited to loss of recess. School-based examples include but are not limited to recess, attending/participating in extracurricular school activities, school-provided transportation, etc.
25. Confiscation of Item - When a teacher takes away an item (related to a behavior error) from a student for the purposes of disrupting or mitigating a behavior error or classroom disruption. When an administrator, SRO, or their designee takes away an item from a student for security or legal reasons.
26. Behavior Improvement Plan (BIP) - a team-based process that requires observation and data collection. The process results in the development of a plan that reduces challenging behavior, while also promoting prosocial replacement behaviors through formal teaching.
27. Referral to MTSS Team or Advanced Tier Team - An advanced tier team supports students not succeeding in Tier 1. Includes case consultation, review of data and multi-tiered intervention planning (Academic and Behavioral).
28. Referral to Student Assistance Program (SAP) - A systematic team process used to mobilize school resources to remove barriers to learning. SAP is designed to assist in identifying alcohol, tobacco, other drugs, and mental health issues that pose a barrier to a student’s success. The primary goal of the Student Assistance Program is to help students overcome these barriers so that they may achieve, advance, and remain in school.
29. Referral to Students IEP/504 Team - Referral for the following purposes:
- manifestation determination(s)
- liaison for specific discipline actions
- general communication
- revision(s) to the IEP, PBSP, or 504 plan
30. Restitution - Actions and amends that provide non-monetary compensation and healing to the victim via the student who caused harm. The intended outcome is to help the student who caused harm understand the impact of their actions, reclaim self-esteem through personal effort and decrease likelihood of repeat behavior. Examples include but are not limited to: work that would repair or restore environments they have damaged. This includes cleaning up graffiti or repairing acts of vandalism. The actions of restitution should always be logical, related to the behavior infraction, and on student terms
Office-Managed Actions, Consequences, and Interventions
Change of Attire
Out-of-School Suspension (OSS)
Suspension from District-Provided Transportation
Change Schedule / Alternative Programming (School-based)
Crisis Prevention Intervention (CPI) Restraint
Expulsion (< 1 Cal year)
Expulsion (1 Cal year)
Parent/Guardian Involvement or Supervision
Care Team Screening
Expulsion (> 1 Cal year)
Home Study Instruction/ Cyber
Referral to Law Enforcement
Spec. Ed. student moved to an interim Alt. Ed. by school personnel
In-School Suspension (ISS) Instructive
Suspension from School Athletics
Spec. Ed. student moved to an interim Alt. Ed. Due Process Hearing Officer
31. Change of Attire - To replace or change clothing in response to dress code violation.
32. Change Schedule/Alternative Programming (School-based) - Alteration to assigned learning environment(s), classroom, or timing of instruction to meet learner needs. Example: after three incidents of plagiarism while enrolled in CVVA, consider alternative programming.
33. Mediation - Facilitated or directed conversation between two parties used to identify mutually agreeable solutions. During mediation, consider using the following five restorative questions to help those harmed by others actions:
- What did you think when you realized what had happened?
- What impact has this incident had on you and others?
- What has been the hardest thing for you?
- What do you think needs to happen to make things right?
34. Parent/Guardian Involvement or Supervision - A student’s parent/guardian may accompany the student in order to provide supervision or prompt the student to follow a specific behavior support.
35. Home Visit - A meeting between a student’s parent(s)/guardian(s) and school staff (administrator, social worker, SPO, etc.) held at the family’s home, or other outside the school building location, for two-way communication with the student’s family regarding a variety of issues.
36. Community Service - Unpaid work performed by a person or group of people for the benefit and betterment of their community without any form of compensation.
37. In-School Suspension (ISS) Instructive - A consequence that keeps students in school and doing work but removes them from their normal schedule. Typically, students are relocated to a room designated for ISS.
38. Out-of-School Suspension (OSS) - A temporary, complete exclusion from school and activities. In other words, a student is banned from being on school property. A student may be suspended by administration for three (3) days without a hearing or up to ten (10) days with an opportunity for an informal hearing. Students shall make up work missed during the suspension
39. Crisis Prevention Intervention (CPI) Restraint - used only as a last resort in behavioral emergencies (when an individual is a danger to self or others) to protect and maintain safety for the individual in distress and others who could be affected. Any use of physical restraints should be all-encompassing and part of a strong de-escalation plan. Physical restraints are aligned with school, district, state, and federal regulations and reporting.
40. Suicide Assessment – Suicide risk screening and/or assessment is a skill that requires training, and established methods for follow-up should be outlined in a school entity’s policies and protocols. This process may be undertaken by school entity personnel who are suitably qualified to do so (e.g., school counselor, school psychologist), or it may be undertaken by a contracted external provider (e.g., community-based mental health service provider).
41. Care Team Screening - Initial screening of student behavior that indicates a potential threat to the safety of the student, other students, school employees, school facilities, the community or others.
42. Threat Assessment - The formal assessment of student behavior that has been deemed a threat through the screening process.
43. Referral to Law Enforcement - Providing information to law enforcement about a threat made by a student or an alleged crime committed by a student.
44. Suspension from School Athletics - Exclusion from participating in school athletics. Length of suspension will vary depending on infraction.
45. Suspension from District Provided Transportation - Eligibility or privilege of student to ride district provided transportation is suspended. Length of time suspended will vary depending on infraction.
46. Expulsion (less than one calendar year) - Students are afforded the opportunity for a formal expulsion hearing. Students may be completely removed or banned from school, school grounds, and associated school activities for the period of time equal to less than one calendar year after which the hearing has occurred.
47. Expulsion (one calendar year) - Students are afforded the opportunity for a formal expulsion hearing. Students may be completely removed or banned from school, school grounds, and associated school activities for the period of time equal to one calendar year after which the hearing has occurred.
48. Expulsion (more than one calendar year) - Students are afforded the opportunity for a formal expulsion hearing. Students may be completely removed or banned from school, school grounds, and associated school activities for the period of time equal to more than one calendar year after which the hearing has occurred.
49. Home Study Instruction/ Cyber - A form of instruction conducted in compliance with the law by the parent/guardian or person having legal custody of a child and precipitated by the need to remove or ban the student from school, school grounds, and associated school activities.
50. Special Education Student Removed to an Interim Alternative Educational setting by School Personnel
51. Special Education Student Removed to an Interim Alternative Educational setting by Due Process Hearing Officer